We use the present perfect when we want to look back from the present to the past.
We can use it to look back on the recent past.
- I've broken my watch so I don't know what time it is.
- They have cancelled the meeting.
- She's taken my copy. I don't have one.
- The sales team has doubled its turnover.
When we look back on the recent past, we often use the words 'just' 'already' or the word 'yet' (in negatives and questions only).
- We've already talked about that.
- She hasn't arrived yet.
- I've just done it.
- They've already met.
- They don't know yet.
- Have you spoken to him yet?
- Have they got back to you yet?
It can also be used to look back on the more distant past.
- We've been to Singapore a lot over the last few years.
- She's done this type of project many times before.
- We've mentioned it to them on several occasions over the last six months.
- They've often talked about it in the past.
When we look back on the more distant past, we often use the words 'ever' (in questions) and 'never'.
- Have you ever been to Argentina?
- Has he ever talked to you about the problem?
- I've never met Jim and Sally.
- We've never considered investing in Mexico.
How do we make the Present Perfect Tense?
The structure of the present perfect tense is:
|subject||+||auxiliary verb||+||main verb|
| || ||have|| ||past participle|
Here are some examples of the present perfect tense:
| ||subject||auxiliary verb|| ||main verb|| |
|?||Have||you|| ||finished?|| |
How do we use the Present Perfect Tense?
This tense is called the present perfect tense. There is always a connection with the past and with the present. There are basically three uses for the present perfect tense:
- continuing situation
1. Present perfect tense for experience
We often use the present perfect tense to talk about experience from the past. We are not interested in when you did something. We only want to know if you did it:
|I have seen ET.|
He has lived in Bangkok.
Have you been there?
We have never eaten caviar.
|The action or state was in the past.||In my head, I have a memory now.|
Connection with present: in my head, now, I have a memory of the event; I know something about the event; I have experience of it.
2. Present perfect tense for change
We also use the present perfect tense to talk about a change or new information:
|I have bought a car.|
|Last week I didn't have a car.||Now I have a car.|
|John has broken his leg.|
|Yesterday John had a good leg.||Now he has a bad leg.|
|Has the price gone up?|
|Was the price $1.50 yesterday?||Is the price $1.70 today?|
|The police have arrested the killer.|
|Yesterday the killer was free.||Now he is in prison.|
Connection with present: the present is the opposite of the past.
3. Present perfect tense for continuing situation
We often use the present perfect tense to talk about a continuing situation. This is a state that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably continue into the future). This is a state (not an action). We usually use for or since with this structure.
|I have worked here since June.|
He has been ill for 2 days.
How long have you known Tara?
|The situation started in the past.||It continues up to now.||(It will probably continue into the future.)|
Connection with present: the situation continues in the present.
For & Since with Present Perfect Tense
We often use for and since with the present perfect tense.
- We use for to talk about a period of time - 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years.
- We use since to talk about a point in past time - 9 o'clock, 1st January, Monday.
|a period of time||a point in past time|
|a long time||I left school|
|ever||the beginning of time|
Here are some examples:
- I have been here for 20 minutes.
- I have been here since 9 o'clock.
- John hasn't called for 6 months.
- John hasn't called since February.
- He has worked in New York for a long time.
- He has worked in New York since he left school.
The passive voice is less usual than the active voice. The active voice is the "normal" voice. But sometimes we need the passive voice. In this lesson we look at how to construct the passive voice, when to use it and how to conjugate it.
Construction of the Passive Voice
The structure of the passive voice is very simple:
subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle)
The main verb is always in its past participle form.
Look at these examples:
|subject||auxiliary verb (to be)||main verb (past participle)|
|100 people||are||employed||by this company.|
Use of the Passive Voice
We use the passive when:
- we want to make the active object more important
- we do not know the active subject
|give importance to active object (President Kennedy)||President Kennedy||was killed||by Lee Harvey Oswald.|
|active subject unknown||My wallet||has been stolen.||?|
Note that we always use by to introduce the passive object (Fish are eaten by cats).
Conjugation for the Passive Voice
We can form the passive in any tense. In fact, conjugation of verbs in the passive tense is rather easy, as the main verb is always in past participle form and the auxiliary verb is always be. To form the required tense, we conjugate the auxiliary verb. So, for example:
- present simple: It is made
- present continuous: It is being made
- present perfect: It has been made
Here are some examples with most of the possible tenses:
|infinitive||to be washed|
|simple||present||It is washed.|
|past||It was washed.|
|future||It will be washed.|
|conditional||It would be washed.|
|continuous||present||It is being washed.|
|past||It was being washed.|
|future||It will be being washed.|
|conditional||It would be being washed.|
|perfect simple||present||It has been washed.|
|past||It had been washed.|
|future||It will have been washed.|
|conditional||It would have been washed.|
|perfect continuous||present||It has been being washed.|
|past||It had been being washed.|
|future||It will have been being washed.|
|conditional||It would have been being washed.|
Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things that we can count. For example: "pen". We can count pens. We can have one, two, three or more pens. Here are some more countable nouns:
- dog, cat, animal, man, person
- bottle, box, litre
- coin, note, dollar
- cup, plate, fork
- table, chair, suitcase, bag
Countable nouns can be singular or plural:
- My dog is playing.
- My dogs are hungry.
We can use the indefinite article a/an with countable nouns:
- A dog is an animal.
When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a/the/my/this with it:
- I want an orange. (not I want orange.)
- Where is my bottle? (not Where is bottle?)
When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone:
- I like oranges.
- Bottles can break.
We can use some and any with countable nouns:
- I've got some dollars.
- Have you got any pens?
We can use a few and many with countable nouns:
- I've got a few dollars.
- I haven't got many pens.
Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot "count" them. For example, we cannot count "milk". We can count "bottles of milk" or "litres of milk", but we cannot count "milk" itself. Here are some more uncountable nouns:
- music, art, love, happiness
- advice, information, news
- furniture, luggage
- rice, sugar, butter, water
- electricity, gas, power
- money, currency
We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. We use a singular verb. For example:
- This news is very important.
- Your luggage looks heavy.
We do not usually use the indefinite article a/an with uncountable nouns. We cannot say "an information" or "a music". But we can say a something of:
- a piece of news
- a bottle of water
- a grain of rice
We can use some and any with uncountable nouns:
- I've got some money.
- Have you got any rice?
We can use a little and much with uncountable nouns:
- I've got a little money.
- I haven't got much rice.
The simple definition is: a person, place or thing. Here are some examples:
* person: man, woman, teacher, John, Mary
* place: home, office, town, countryside, America
* thing: table, car, banana, money, music, love, dog, monkey
The problem with this definition is that it does not explain why "love" is a noun but can also be a verb.
Another (more complicated) way of recognizing a noun is by its:
1. Noun Ending
There are certain word endings that show that a word is a noun, for example:
* -ity > nationality
* -ment > appointment
* -ness > happiness
* -ation > relation
* -hood > childhood
But this is not true for the word endings of all nouns. For example, the noun "spoonful" ends in -ful, but the adjective "careful" also ends in -ful.
2. Position in Sentence
We can often recognise a noun by its position in the sentence.
Nouns often come after a determiner (a determiner is a word like a, an, the, this, my, such):
* a relief
* an afternoon
* the doctor
* this word
* my house
* such stupidity
Nouns often come after one or more adjectives:
* a great relief
* a peaceful afternoon
* the tall, Indian doctor
* this difficult word
* my brown and white house
* such crass stupidity
3. Function in a Sentence
Nouns have certain functions (jobs) in a sentence, for example:
* subject of verb: Doctors work hard.
* object of verb: He likes coffee.
* subject and object of verb: Teachers teach students.
But the subject or object of a sentence is not always a noun. It could be a pronoun or a phrase. In the sentence "My doctor works hard", the noun is "doctor" but the subject is "My doctor".
Prepositional verbs are a group of multi-word verbs made from a verb plus another word or words. Many people refer to all multi-word verbs as phrasal verbs. On these pages we make a distinction between three types of multi-word verbs: prepositional verbs, phrasal verbs and phrasal-prepositional verbs. On this page we look at prepositional verbs.
Prepositional verbs are made of:
verb + preposition
Because a preposition always has an object, all prepositional verbs have direct objects. Here are some examples of prepositional verbs:
|believe in||have faith in the existence of||I believe in||God.|
|look after||take care of||He is looking after||the dog.|
|talk about||discuss||Did you talk about||me?|
|wait for||await||John is waiting for||Mary.|
Prepositional verbs cannot be separated. That means that we cannot put the direct object between the two parts. For example, we must say "look after the baby". We cannot say "look the baby after":
|prepositional verbs are inseparable||Who is looking after the baby?||This is possible.|
|Who is looking the baby after?||This is not possible.|
Phrasal verbs are a group of multi-word verbs made from a verb plus another word or words. Many people refer to all multi-word verbs as phrasal verbs. On these pages we make a distinction between three types of multi-word verbs: prepositional verbs, phrasal verbs and phrasal-prepositional verbs. On this page we look at phrasal verbs proper.
Phrasal verbs are made of:
verb + adverb
Phrasal verbs can be:
- intransitive (no direct object)
- transitive (direct object)
Here are some examples of phrasal verbs:
| ||direct object|
|intransitive phrasal verbs||get up||rise from bed||I don't like to get up.|| |
|break down||cease to function||He was late because his car broke down.|| |
|transitive phrasal verbs||put off||postpone||We will have to put off||the meeting.|
|turn down||refuse||They turned down||my offer.|
Separable Phrasal Verbs
When phrasal verbs are transitive (that is, they have a direct object), we can usually separate the two parts. For example, "turn down" is a separable phrasal verb. We can say: "turn downturn my offer down". Look at this table: my offer" or "
|transitive phrasal verbs are|
|They||turned|| ||down||my offer.|
|They||turned||my offer||down.|| |
However, if the direct object is a pronoun, we have no choice. We must separate the phrasal verb and insert the pronoun between the two parts. Look at this example with the separable phrasal verb "switch on":
|direct object pronouns must go between the two parts of transitive phrasal verbs||John||switched||on||the radio.||These are all possible.|
|John||switched||on||it.||This is not possible.|
- to project ourselves into the future and see something happening: This time next week I will be sun-bathing in Bali.
- to refer to actions/events that will happen in the normal course of events: I'll be seeing Jim at the conference next week.
- in the interrogative form, especially with 'you', to distinguish between a simple request for information and an invitation: Will you be coming to the party tonight? (= request for information) Will you come to the party? (= invitation)
- to predict or guess about someone's actions or feelings, now or in the future: You'll be feeling tired after that long walk, I expect.
a. events in progress in the future:
When you are in Australia will you be staying with friends?
This time next week you will be working in your new job.
At four thirty on Tuesday afternoon I will be signing the contract.
b. events/actions in normal course of events:
I'll be going into town this afternoon, is there anything you want from the shops?
Will you be using the car tomorrow? - No, you can take it.
I'll be seeing Jane this evening - I'll give her the message.
c. asking for information:
Will you be bringing your friend to the pub tonight?
Will Jim be coming with us?
d. predicting or guessing:
You'll be feeling thirsty after working in the sun.
He'll be coming to the meeting, I expect.
You'll be missing the sunshine now you're back in England.
How do we make the Future Continuous Tense?
The structure of the future continuous tense is:
auxiliary verb WILL
auxiliary verb BE
| || |
| || |
| || |
base + ing
For negative sentences in the future continuous tense, we insert not between will and be. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and will. Look at these example sentences with the future continuous tense:
| || |
on a beach tomorrow.
dinner at home.
When we use the future continuous tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and will:
For spoken negative sentences in the future continuous tense, we contract with won't, like this:
|I will not||I won't|
|you will not||you won't|
|he will not|
she will not
it will not
|we will not||we won't|
|they will not||they won't|
How do we use the Future Continuous Tense?
The future continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the future. The action will start before that moment but it will not have finished at that moment. For example, tomorrow I will start work at 2pm and stop work at 6pm:
|At 4pm tomorrow, I will be working.|
|At 4pm, I will be in the middle of working.|
When we use the future continuous tense, our listener usually knows or understands what time we are talking about. Look at these examples:
- I will be playing tennis at 10am tomorrow.
- They won't be watching TV at 9pm tonight.
- What will you be doing at 10pm tonight?
- What will you be doing when I arrive?
- She will not be sleeping when you telephone her.
- We 'll be having dinner when the film starts.
- Take your umbrella. It will be raining when you return.
It is used:
- often, to describe the background in a story written in the past tense, e.g. "The sun was shining and the birds were singing as the elephant came out of the jungle. The other animals were relaxing in the shade of the trees, but the elephant moved very quickly. She was looking for her baby, and she didn't notice the hunter who was watching her through his binoculars. When the shot rang out, she was running towards the river..."
- to describe an unfinished action that was interrupted by another event or action: "I was having a beautiful dream when the alarm clock rang."
- to express a change of mind: e.g. "I was going to spend the day at the beach but I've decided to go on an excursion instead."
- with 'wonder', to make a very polite request: e.g. "I was wondering if you could baby-sit for me tonight."
- They were waiting for the bus when the accident happened.
- Caroline was skiing when she broke her leg.
- When we arrived he was having a bath.
- When the fire started I was watching television.
How do we make the Past Continuous Tense?
The structure of the past continuous tense is:
|subject||+||auxiliary verb BE||+||main verb|
|conjugated in simple past tense||present participle|
|base + ing|
For negative sentences in the past continuous tense, we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. Look at these example sentences with the past continuous tense:
|subject||auxiliary verb||main verb|
|-||He, she, it||was||not||helping||Mary.|
How do we use the Past Continuous Tense?
The past continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the past. The action started before that moment but has not finished at that moment.
For example, yesterday I watched a film on TV. The film started at 7pm and finished at 9pm.
|At 8pm yesterday, I was watching TV.|
|At 8pm, I was in the middle of watching TV.|
When we use the past continuous tense, our listener usually knows or understands what time we are talking about. Look at these examples:
- I was working at 10pm last night.
- They were not playing football at 9am this morning.
- What were you doing at 10pm last night?
- What were you doing when he arrived?
- She was cooking when I telephoned her.
- We were having dinner when it started to rain.
- Ram went home early because it was snowing.
Past Continuous Tense + Simple Past Tense
We often use the past continuous tense with the simple past tense. We use the past continuous tense to express a long action. And we use the simple past tense to express a short action that happens in the middle of the long action. We can join the two ideas with when or while.
In the following example, we have two actions:
- long action (watching TV), expressed with past continuous tense
- short action (telephoned), expressed with simple past tense
We can join these two actions with when:
- I was watching TV when you telephoned.
(Notice that "when you telephoned" is also a way of defining the time [8pm].)
- when + short action (simple past tense)
- while + long action (past continuous tense)
There are four basic combinations:
|I was walking past the car||when||it exploded.|
|When||the car exploded||I was walking past it.|
|The car exploded||while||I was walking past it.|
|While||I was walking past the car||it exploded.|
Notice that the long action and short action are relative.
- "Watching TV" took a few hours. "Telephoned" took a few seconds.
- "Walking past the car" took a few seconds. "Exploded" took a few milliseconds.
The present participle of most verbs has the form base+ing and is used in the following ways:
a. as part of the continuous form of a verb
(See continuous tenses in Present Continuous Tense)
I am working,
he was singing,
they have been walking.
b. after verbs of movement/position in the pattern: verb + present participle
- She went shopping
- He lay looking up at the clouds
- She came running towards me
This construction is particularly useful with the verb 'to go', as in these common expressions :
to go shopping
to go walking
c. after verbs of perception in the pattern:
verb + object + present participle
I heard someone singing.
He saw his friend walking along the road.
I can smell something burning!
NOTE: There is a difference in meaning when such a sentence contains a zero-infinitive rather than a participle. The infinitive refers to a complete action, but the participle refers to an incomplete action, or part of an action.
- I heard Joanna singing (= she had started before I heard her, and probably went on afterwards)
- I heard Joanna sing (= I heard her complete performance)
d. as an adjective
amazing, worrying, exciting, boring.
- It was an amazing film.
- It's a bit worrying when the police stop you
- Dark billowing clouds often precede a storm.
- Racing cars can go as fast as 400kph.
- He was trapped inside the burning house.
- Many of his paintings depict the setting sun.
e. with the verbs spend and waste, in the pattern:
verb + time/money expression + present participle
- My boss spends two hours a day travelling to work.
- Don't waste time playing computer games!
- They've spent the whole day shopping.
f. with the verbs catch and find, in the pattern:
verb + object + present participle:
With catch, the participle always refers to an action which causes annoyance or anger:
- If I catch you stealing my apples again, there'll be trouble!
- Don't let him catch you reading his letters.
This is not the case with find, which is unemotional:
- We found some money lying on the ground.
- They found their mother sitting in the garden.
g. to replace a sentence or part of a sentence:
When two actions occur at the same time, and are done by the same person or thing, we can use a present participle to describe one of them:
- They went out into the snow. They laughed as they went. They went laughing out into the snow.
- He whistled to himself. He walked down the road. Whistling to himself, he walked down the road.
When one action follows very quickly after another done by the same person or thing, we can express the first action with a present participle:
- He put on his coat and left the house. Putting on his coat, he left the house.
- She dropped the gun and put her hands in the air. Dropping the gun, she put her hands in the air.
The present participle can be used instead of a phrase starting as, since, because, and it explains the cause or reason for an action:
- Feeling hungry, he went into the kitchen and opened the fridge.
(= because he felt hungry...)
- Being poor, he didn't spend much on clothes.
- Knowing that his mother was coming, he cleaned the flat.
Irregular verbs are not as easy to learn as regular ones, but it's not that hard, either. Students are often scared at the variety of irregular verbs the English language has, and learning them can be challenging - but fun. One thing is true, though: you'll have to learn them by heart. There have been systems invented to learn irregular verbs easier by ESL programs, but actually the best way is to remember the verbs, by using them, and applying them to different situations. Let's take a look at some common -and not so common- irregular verbs in English:
be - was/were - been
become - became - become
begin - began - begun
break - broke - broken
bring - brought - brought
build - built - built
buy - bought - bought
come - came - come
cost - cost - cost
cut - cut - cut
do - did - done
drink - drank - drunk
eat - ate - eaten
find - found - found
fly - flew - flown
get - got - gotten/got
give - gave - given
go - went - gone
have - had - had
keep - kept - kept
know - knew - known
leave - left - left
make - made - made
meet - met - met
pay - paid - paid
put - put - put
read - read - read
say - said - said
see - saw - seen
sell - sold - sold
send - sent - sent
speak - spoke - spoken
spend - spent - spent
take - took - taken
teach - taught - taught
tell - told - told
think - thought - thought
These are very frequent verbs, and if you take a close look you'll see that the past participle (third column) often repeats the past form. For example:
- I make my bed every day.
- I made my bed yesterday.
- I have made my bed before!
Others, however, suffer a change when used in part participle:
- I speak with my mother often.
- I spoke with my mother last Friday.
- I have recently spoken to my mother.
As with regular verbs, irregular ones are used with different auxiliaries to form tenses. That way, using has or have plus the past participle of a verb will form the present perfect tense:
- She has taught me a lot about life.
Using had plus past participle forms the past perfect tense:
- They had always thought her illness could be reverted.
Will is also an auxiliary that forms the future tense. Will have plus a past participle will form the future perfect tense:
- Tomorrow will be a nice day. (Simple Future)
- By Friday, I will have finished my assignments (Future Perfect)
For a full list of irregular verbs and exercises you can visit this complete website. To understand fully the way irregular verbs are constructed, the best way is to study and use them, so only practice can lead you to success in this sense. So go ahead, use, study and learn them!
List of common verbs normally used in simple form:
Senses / Perception
feel*, hear, see*, smell, taste
assume, believe, consider, doubt, feel (= think), find (= consider), suppose, think*
forget, imagine, know, mean, notice, recognise, remember, understand
Emotions / desires
envy, fear, dislike, hate, hope, like, love, mind, prefer, regret, want, wish
contain, cost, hold, measure, weigh
look (=resemble), seem, be (in most cases), have (when it means to possess)*
1. 'Perception' verbs (see, hear, feel, taste, smell) are often used with 'can': e.g. I can see...
2. * These verbs may be used in the continuous form but with a different meaning, compare:
a. This coat feels nice and warm. (= your perception of the coat's qualities)
b. John's feeling much better now (= his health is improving)
a. She has three dogs and a cat. (=possession)
b. She's having supper. (= She's eating)
a. I can see Anthony in the garden (= perception)
b. I'm seeing Anthony later (= We are planning to meet)
- I wish I was in Greece now.
- She wants to see him now.
- I don't understand why he is shouting.
- I feel we are making a mistake.
- This glass holds half a litre.
- John is sleeping right now.
- I need an umbrella because it is raining.
- John and Mary are talking on the phone.
- I am taking five courses this semester.
- John is trying to improve his work habits.
- She is writing another book this year.
When someone uses the present continuous, they are thinking about something that is unfinished or incomplete.
The present continuous is used:
- to describe an action that is going on at this moment e.g. You are using the Internet. You are studying English grammar.
- to describe an action that is going on during this period of time or a trend, e.g.
Are you still working for the same company? More and more people are becoming vegetarian.
- to describe an action or event in the future, which has already been planned or prepared (See also 'Ways of expressing the future) e.g. We're going on holiday tomorrow. I'm meeting my boyfriend tonight. Are they visiting you next winter?
- to describe a temporary event or situation, e.g. He usually plays the drums, but he's playing bass guitar tonight. The weather forecast was good, but it's raining at the moment.
- with 'always, forever, constantly', to describe and emphasise a continuing series of repeated actions, e.g. Harry and Sally are always arguing! You're forever complaining about your mother-in-law!
BE CAREFUL! Some verbs are not used in the continuous form - see this part.
How do we use the Present Continuous Tense?
We use the present continuous tense to talk about:
- action happening now
- action in the future
Present continuous tense for action happening now
a) for action happening exactly now
I am eating my lunch.
| || |
The action is happening now.
b) for action happening around now
The action may not be happening exactly now, but it is happening just before and just after now, and it is not permanent or habitual.
John is going out with Mary.
The action is happening around now.
Look at these examples:
- Muriel is learning to drive.
- I am living with my sister until I find an apartment.
Present continuous tense for the future
We can also use the present continuous tense to talk about the future - if we add a future word!! We must add (or understand from the context) a future word. "Future words" include, for example, tomorrow, next year, in June, at Christmas etc. We only use the present continuous tense to talk about the future when we have planned to do something before we speak. We have already made a decision and a plan before speaking.
I am taking my exam next month.
A firm plan or programme exists now.
The action is in the future.
Look at these examples:
- We're eating in a restaurant tonight. We've already booked the table..
- They can play tennis with you tomorrow. They're not working.
- When are you starting your new job?
In these examples, we have a firm plan or programme before speaking. The decision and plan were made before speaking.
The simple future refers to a time later than now, and expresses facts or certainty. In this case there is no 'attitude'.
The simple future is used:
- To predict a future event: It will rain tomorrow.
- (With I/we) to express a spontaneous decision: I'll pay for the tickets by credit card.
- To express willingness: I'll do the washing-up. He'll carry your bag for you.
- (In the negative form) to express unwillingness: The baby won't eat his soup. I won't leave until I've seen the manager!
- (With I in the interrogative form) to make an offer: Shall I open the window?
- (With we in the interrogative form) to make a suggestion: Shall we go to the cinema tonight?
- (With I in the interrogative form) to ask for advice or instructions: What shall I tell the boss about this money?
- (With you) to give orders: You will do exactly as I say.
- (With you) to give an invitation: Will you come to the dance with me?
- Will you marry me?
How do we make the Simple Future Tense?
The structure of the simple future tense is:
auxiliary verb WILL
| || |
| || |
For negative sentences in the simple future tense, we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. Look at these example sentences with the simple future tense:
| || |
at school tomorrow.
When we use the simple future tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb:
For negative sentences in the simple future tense, we contract with won't, like this:
I will not
you will not
he will not
we will not
they will not
How do we use the Simple Future Tense?
We use the simple future tense when there is no plan or decision to do something before we speak. We make the decision spontaneously at the time of speaking. Look at these examples:
- Hold on. I'll get a pen.
- We will see what we can do to help you.
- Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.
In these examples, we had no firm plan before speaking. The decision is made at the time of speaking.
We often use the simple future tense with the verb to think before it:
- I think I'll go to the gym tomorrow.
- I think I will have a holiday next year.
- I don't think I'll buy that car.
We often use the simple future tense to make a prediction about the future. Again, there is no firm plan. We are saying what we think will happen. Here are some examples:
- It will rain tomorrow.
- People won't go to Jupiter before the 22nd century.
- Who do you think will get the job?
When the main verb is be, we can use the simple future tense even if we have a firm plan or decision before speaking. Examples:
- I'll be in
- I'm going shopping. I won't be very long.
- Will you be at work tomorrow?